The planet Golarion orbits a yellow sun in the far reaches of the Material Plane. Third in orbit, this blue planet contains vast oceans and lush green lands, the perfect environment for countless cultures to thrive. Its nearest neighbors, Castrovel the Green World and Akiton the Red Planet, (second and fourth from the sun, respectively) fill Golarion's night sky along with its crater-scarred moon.
Due to its innately hospitable and life-sustaining environment compared to other worlds, presumably the work of the gods, astronomers sometimes refer to Golarion as "the Child". Astronomers on other planets, however, often refer to Golarion as "the Cage" in reference to its cosmic role as the prison of the mad god Rovagug, who lies bound at the world's core.
On its eastern edge, bordered by the World's Edge Mountains, Casmaron expands into a large peninsular continent called Avistan, which plays host to a number of civilizations built upon the ruins of great past empires, such as that of the Thassilonians.
Southeast of Avistan, across the Inner Sea is the largely unexplored wilderness of Garund. Whether one is scouring its northern deserts for lost relics of the Osiriani pharaohs or trekking through the near-impenetrable jungles of the Mwangi Expanse, Garund provides endless adventures for those willing to risk its many dangers.
A thousand miles to the west from the Arch of Aroden are the remnants of the once great island-continent of Azlant, which saw the rise of the first human civilizations. All that remains of Azlant today is a series of jutting crags and narrow, twisted channels; most of the continent sunk beneath the sea when the Starstone fell from the sky.
Surrounding Azlant lies the expanse of the Arcadian Ocean and even further west, the lush island continent of Arcadia, which gives the body of water its name. 4,000 miles from the shores of Avistan, little is known of this land but in the most ancient of texts and lore from long-fallen empires, though there are infrequent trade and colonization efforts from Avistan to Arcadia.
An immense frozen desert spans the northern pole of the planet, called the Crown of the World. While much too cold and harsh-weathered for permanent and successful habitation, the Crown is most often traveled as a means of reaching the far-eastern continent of Tian Xia on the opposite of the world from Avistan.
Five great oceans cover the remainder of Golarion: the above-mentioned Arcadian Ocean; the Obari Ocean between Garund and Casmaron; the Embaral Ocean touching Casmaron, Tian Xia, and Sarusan; the Okaiyo Ocean separating Tian Xia from Arcadia; and the Antarktos Ocean, which covers most of Golarion's southern hemisphere, including the south pole.
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