The Starstone is a unique gem that was part of a massive meteorite that tumbled to Golarion in -5293 AR. This event, known as Earthfall, caused the destruction of the ancient empires of Azlant and Thassilon, created the Inner Sea, and ushered in the Age of Darkness.
The Azlanti empire was the first known human civilization on the face of Golarion. Raised from barbarism by the alien aboleth during the Age of Legend, the Azlanti eventually developed a level of technology, magic, and civilization the likes of which have not been seen since. But this advancement caused the Azlanti people to become arrogant and proud, and they no longer felt the need to obey and respect their inhuman benefactors. This angered the aboleth, and in retribution they used their ancient magics to call down an ancient, poisonous remnant of an unborn planet to destroy all life on the surface of Golarion: a planet-killer.
Luckily, the Azlanti were not without their protectors. When their goddess of the moon and battle, Acavna, learned of the aboleths' plan, she pulled Golarion's moon from its orbit to intercept the massive meteorite. The impact with the moon shattered the world-killing projectile into thousands of pieces, but did not slow or deflect it from its course. Instead, its shards inflicted lethal wounds on the goddess' physical manifestation. Distraught by her death, the Azlanti god of magic, Amaznen, sacrificed himself to render the remaining deadly aboleth magic clinging to the meteorite fragments inert, transforming it from a world-killer into one that, while still incredibly destructive, gave life on Golarion a chance to survive. When the fragments impacted with Golarion they completely obliterated the continent of Azlant and plunged the world into the Age of Darkness, but thanks to Acavna and Amaznen, did not cause the death of all life on the planet. This occurrence has been passed down over time as an ancient rumour telling that when the Starstone plunged to Golarion, parts of it broke off in the planet's atmosphere and ended up landing on the moon.
Over 5,000 years after the destruction of Earthfall, Aroden, then still a mortal being, was called to the Inner Sea where the heart of the ancient aboleth weapon still lay. It erupted from the waves as an entire massive island, topped by a unique gem that was made of celestial materials, aboleth magic, the blood of the goddess Acavna, and the scar tissue of the planet itself: the Starstone. Aroden used his magics to keep it from ever being misused again. In response, the gods elevated him to become one of them, and the Starstone has served as a vehicle to attain divinity ever since. He then founded the city of Absalom and placed the Starstone in the heart of the city.
The stone now rests in the largest cathedral of the Ascendant Court, where anyone can take the Test of the Starstone in order to attempt ascension to godhood. So far, only three mortals are known to have succeeded in the task: Cayden Cailean, Iomedae, and Norgorber.
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