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Nidal is home to elk, although the shadows do not leave them untouched.

An elk.

Cold or temperate plains
Source: Stolen Land, pg(s). 80-81

Elk1 are large herbivores and herd animals similar and related to deer. They are common in cold and temperate plains. Elk and megaloceros are sometimes the animal companions of druids or rangers.2


Elk resemble large deer. Size varies between distinct breeds, but most stand between three and five feet tall and weigh 350 and 550 pounds. The largest varieties reach six feet in height and 700 to 1,100 pounds in weight. Females are smaller than the males. Male elk sport antlers that typically grow to four feet in height and six in width, but the largest racks can grow to be ten feet wide.2


Elk are adaptable herbivores that can live in many environments. They are important components of their environments, as they can fend off many types of predator while providing food for more powerful hunters. Elk are social animals that live in herds of up to fifty members, which protect one another and guard specimens unable to flee from danger. Elk herds are typically divided by gender; herds of cows and calves remain near their dens, while bull herds wander more extensively. This structure breaks down in the mating season, during which bulls gather harems of up to twenty cows. Females are attracted to males who produce the loudest bugling noises, and males aggressively fend each other off in contests of strength for access to mates. Cows nurse calves for a couple of months after their birth, after which they join the herd.2

Elk migrate through the year in response to seasonal changes. Dry seasons can prompt large migrations to find food, sometimes displacing other creatures. Elk hibernate during the winter months.2

Elk do not have many natural predators. Wolves, bears, boars, and large cats prey on young and sick specimens or on ones who leave the safety of the herd, but most predatory animals cannot challenge a full herd of elk and simply avoid large groups. Humanoids and monsters, however, are able to pick off elk through use of ranged weaponry, or innate powers and physical might.2


River elk
River elk are larger and more powerful specimens of elk, generally found in Brevoy, the River Kingdoms, secluded areas of Numeria, and throughout northern Avistan and Iobaria. They tend to travel along rivers, and are confident swimmers.2
Primeval ancestors of the modern elk, megaloceros are the largest and most ferocious of existing elk species and are generally fairly rare. Megaloceros can reach nine feet in eight and 1,500 pounds in weight, and their antlers can surpass twelve feet in width. Their large antlers make it difficult to navigate wooded areas, leading them to inhabit plains and forest edges.2

On Golarion

The Chernasardo riding elk, a variety of river elk native to the Fangwood in Nirmathas, is a valued mount for rangers.3


  1. The singular and plural of "elk" are the same.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Tim Hitchcock, et al. Stolen Land, 80–81. Paizo Inc., 2010
  3. Gareth Hanrahan, et al. Knights of the Inner Sea, inside rear cover. Paizo Inc., 2012

External links

  • Elk (real-world animal) at Wikipedia
  • Megaloceros (real-world animal) at Wikipedia